How to Effectively Research Stocks in 2024

4 min read
Adam Koprucki
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Investing in the stock market can be rewarding, but beginner investors often ask how to research stocks effectively? 

Stock market Investing

This guide aims to provide insight into researching stocks and understanding key valuation metrics. 

We’ll cover everything from fundamental analysis to technical analysis, plus investment strategies to use.

Let’s get into it.

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis one of the the two cornerstones in stock market analysis.

Stock fundamentals refer to the core financial information related to a company. 

Fundamentals are vital for investors assessing a company’s value and potential for growth. 

That’s not all…

  • Earnings Per Share (EPS): This indicates the company’s profitability. A higher EPS often means more value for shareholders.
  • Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E): Used to determine if a stock is over or undervalued. A high P/E may signal overvaluation, while a low P/E could indicate a good buying opportunity.
  • Dividend Yield:  This represents the income an investor gets from owning a stock. A high dividend yield may attract income-focused investors.
  • Debt-to-Equity Ratio: This helps in assessing a company’s financial leverage. A lower ratio may indicate a more financially stable company.
  • Return on Equity (ROE): Measures the profitability with respect to shareholders’ equity. Higher ROE often indicates effective management.
  • Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B): Compares a company’s market value to its book value. A lower P/B ratio might signify an undervalued stock.
  • Current Ratio: Evaluates a company’s ability to pay short-term obligations. A higher current ratio signifies better liquidity.

Understanding these fundamentals assists you in making informed investment decisions.

By thoroughly analyzing these metrics, one can gauge a company’s financial health and future prospects.

Many of these fundamental analysis indicators are available for free with stock brokerage accounts.

However, if you’re looking for an in-depth analysis of these fundamentals, you may need to subscribe to a paid investment newsletter.

Fundamental Analysis Example

Below is basic example of fundamental analysis for Apple stock: 

Criteria
Apple (AAPL)
Fundamental Analysis
Earnings Per Share (EPS)
$4.50
Reflects the company's profitability per share, calculated as earnings divided by outstanding shares.
Price-to-Earnings (P/E)
25x
Shows how much investors are willing to pay for each dollar of earnings.
Revenue Growth
6%
The year-over-year increase in the company's sales.
Dividend Yield
1.5%
The annual dividend payment as a percentage of the stock's current price.Add New
Net Profit Margin
21%
A profitability measure, calculated as net income divided by total revenue.
Debt-to-Equity Ratio
1.2
Indicates how much debt is used to finance assets, relative to equity.
Return on Equity (ROE)
29%
Reflects how much profit is generated with shareholders' equity.

These criteria can give a snapshot of Apple’s financial standing. Analyzing these metrics in comparison with industry benchmarks, competitors, and historical data will help in understanding Apple’s position in the market and its potential for future growth.

It is essential to combine this data with qualitative analysis, considering factors like management quality, industry position, and competitive advantages for a comprehensive understanding of the company’s value.

Technical Analysis

If you’re researching stocks, don’t overlook technical analysis. 

Technical stock analysis involves studying historical price movements and trading volumes to forecast future price trends. 

Unlike fundamental analysis, which looks at intrinsic value, technical analysis focuses on charts and statistical measurements.

Here’s a breakdown:

  • Price Patterns: Recognizing patterns like head and shoulders, double tops, or flags can help predict future price movements.
  • Trend Lines: Drawing lines on charts to identify upward or downward trends allows investors to understand the current market direction.
  • Moving Averages: These smooth out price data over a specified period and can signal trend reversals or confirm existing trends.
  • Momentum Indicators: Tools like the Relative Strength Index (RSI) or Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) measure the speed and strength of a price movement.
  • Volume Analysis: Examining trading volumes alongside price can confirm trends or signal potential reversals.
  • Support and Resistance Levels: Identifying these levels helps in understanding the price points where buying or selling has historically occurred.
  • Bollinger Bands: These are volatility indicators that can signal overbought or oversold conditions.
  • Fibonacci Retracement: This tool helps identify potential reversal levels by applying mathematical ratios to a price range.
  • Sentiment Indicators: Analyzing investor sentiment can provide insights into market psychology and potential price movements.
  • Oscillators: Tools like the Stochastic Oscillator compare a stock’s closing price to its price range over a specific time period, helping to identify overbought or oversold conditions.

Technical analysis requires a strong understanding of charting techniques and statistical concepts. It is often used by short-term traders seeking to profit from quick price changes. 

While it can be powerful, relying solely on technical analysis might overlook fundamental aspects of a company’s value. 

A better approach may be to combine technical analysis with fundamental analysis to  provide a more holistic view of an investment’s potential.

Technical Analysis Example

Technical analysis focuses on historical price movements and trading volumes to predict future price trends. Here’s a fictional table that demonstrates a simplified technical analysis of Apple Inc.

Criteria
Apple (AAPL)
Technical Analysis
50-Day Moving Average
$150
An average of the closing prices over the last 50 days, often used to identify short-term trends.
200-Day Moving Average
$140
An average of the closing prices over the last 200 days, commonly used to gauge long-term trends.
Relative Strength Index (RSI)
60
A momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of price movements, ranging from 0 to 100.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
Positive
Indicates the relationship between two moving averages of a stock's price.
Bollinger Bands
Within Range
A set of trendlines plotted two standard deviations from a simple moving average.
Volume
$50 million
The number of shares traded during a specific period, used to confirm trends and spot potential reversals.
Support Level
$145
A price level at which a stock or market can consistently trade without a significant price fall.

It’s essential to remember that technical analysis is based on patterns and trends, not intrinsic value, so it’s often used in conjunction with other methods, such as fundamental analysis, for more robust investment decisions.

Stock Research Tools

If you want to learn how to research stocks, you probably need some stock research tools.

There are a wide variety of free stock analysis tools, investment tools such as stock screeners and analyst research reports can help you understand stock price, intrinsic value, and other crucial aspects of investment strategy.

Fundamental Analysis Research Tools

Fundamental analysis requires a detailed examination of a company’s financial health, industry conditions, and broader economic factors. Here are some essential research tools for conducting fundamental analysis:

1. Equity Research Reports: Brokerages and research firms like Morningstar provide in-depth analyses of companies and industries, though some may require subscriptions.

2. Stock Screeners: Tools like Yahoo Finance or Google Finance allow filtering stocks based on fundamental criteria like P/E ratios, dividend yields, or market capitalization.

3. Investment Platforms and Brokerage Tools: Many investment platforms, like Fidelity or Schwab, provide fundamental research tools, including analyst ratings, financial statements, and valuation metrics.

4. Financial News Websites: Platforms like Bloomberg, Reuters, and The Wall Street Journal provide current news, earnings reports, and economic indicators.

5. Company Websites: Corporate Investor Relations sections often contain essential documents like annual reports, quarterly earnings, and press releases.

6. SEC Filings: The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s EDGAR database contains official documents like 10-K and 10-Q reports, offering comprehensive financial details.

7. Economic Databases: Resources like the World Bank or Federal Reserve provide macroeconomic data and insights on monetary policies.

8. Industry Reports and Journals: Sources like IBISWorld or trade publications offer specific insights into industry trends, competitors, and market dynamics.

9. Market Research Platforms: Subscription services like Statista or Nielsen offer detailed consumer and market trend analyses.

10. Investing Books: Books like “The Intelligent Investor” by Benjamin Graham, can be great foundational resources.

These tools enable investors to analyze a company from various angles, encompassing financials, industry position, management quality, and more.

While some are freely accessible, others may require payment or subscriptions. Combining these resources can provide a robust understanding of a company’s fundamentals, helping you make more informed investing decisions.

Technical Analysis Research Tools

Research tools for technical analysis are essential for investors looking to analyze historical price patterns and forecast future price movements. Here are some popular tools and resources:

1. Charting Software: Platforms like Benzinga Pro, MetaTrader, or Thinkorswim offer advanced charting capabilities to plot various technical indicators and patterns.

2. Technical Indicators Library: Many trading platforms provide a vast array of pre-built technical indicators like MACD, RSI, Bollinger Bands, and more.

3. Screeners: Tools like Finviz or StockFetcher allow you to filter stocks based on specific technical criteria, such as moving averages or trend lines.

4. Backtesting Platforms: QuantConnect and NinjaTrader enable users to test trading strategies on historical data to assess their effectiveness.

5. Real-Time Data Feeds: Accurate and timely data is crucial for technical analysis, so subscriptions to services like Bloomberg or Reuters can be beneficial.

6. Automated Trading Bots: For algorithmic traders, tools like AlgoTrader allow you to automate technical trading strategies.

7. Educational Resources: Websites like Investopedia and various online courses offer tutorials and guides on technical analysis methods.

9. Community Forums and Social Media:  Engaging with online communities like Reddit’s r/technicalanalysis or Twitter can provide insights, tips, and real-time opinions from experienced traders.

10. Technical Analysis Books: Time-tested books like “Technical Analysis of the Financial Markets” by John J. Murphy offer deep insights into the subject.

These tools can be tailored to fit various trading styles, from day trading to long-term trend following. Some are free, while others might require a subscription or purchase. 

Combining different tools and continually updating skills through education and practice can lead to a more comprehensive and successful technical analysis approach.

Final Thoughts

Whether you’re just learning how to become an investor, or you are already an experienced trader, understanding how to research stocks is essential to mastering the financial markets.

Utilize tools like the company’s financials, balance sheet, and investment strategy to make well-informed decisions. Always remember, past performance is not indicative of future results, and consulting with a financial advisor may also be beneficial.

Adam Koprucki

Expertise: Fixed-income investing, Macroeconomics, Personal Finance, Derivatives, Options, Index Funds

Professional Experience: J.P. Morgan, Deloitte Consulting, Societe Generale, The Vanguard Group

Education: Loyola University: Bachelor of Business Administration, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Certificate in Capital Markets

Adam Koprucki is the founder of Real World Investor, an investing website dedicated to reviewing the newest and latest investing tools and providing unique market insights for beginner to intermediate investors.

Before starting Real World Investor, he spent over a decade working at some of the world's largest investment banks and investment managers, such as Citibank, J.P. Morgan, Societe Generale, Deloitte, and The Vanguard Group.

His experience includes working with complex financial products such as exotic interest rate derivatives, structured products, and structured credit.

A dedicated and enthusiastic investor, he is passionate about macroeconomics and options trading. His investing insights have been published on Investopedia, Yahoo Finance, Seeking Alpha, GoBankingRates, Nasdaq, and Bigger Pockets.

He is also a contributing author at Equities.com.

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