Index Funds: Pros and Cons Every Investor Needs to Know

4 min read
Adam Koprucki
Written by
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Index funds have soared in popularity over the past 30 years, making them one of household investors’ most popular investment choices.

The index fund recently celebrated its 30th birthday.

Over the past 30 years, index funds have soared in popularity among investors largely due to their implicit diversification, low fees, and passive investing strategy.

But with all those benefits, there are still drawbacks, such as no opportunity for customization, and limited potential for outperformance. 

Either way, if you want to become a savvy investor, understanding the advantages and disadvantages of index funds is crucial.

This article will examine the PROS and CONS of Index Funds so you can make the most educated investing decisions. 

Let’s get into it. 

Pros of Index Funds

Index funds is that they offer a cost-effective, diverse, and low-maintenance investment strategy for long-term investors. Key benefits include low fees, broad diversification, tax efficiency, and consistent returns that closely track the performance of the market indices they represent.

Additionally, index funds provide a passive investment approach, which may outperform actively managed funds over time, with less risk and lower costs.

Low-cost investment

According to a recent Wall Street Journal Article, actively managed funds charge an average fee of 0.70%, versus 0.16% for Passively managed funds.

Index funds generally have lower expense ratios than actively managed funds because they follow a passive investment strategy. For example, two popular index funds, VOO and SPY, which track the performance of the S&P500, have expense ratios of just 0.03% and 0.09%, respectively.

This means they aim to replicate the performance of a specific index through passive management, requiring less frequent trading and lower management and transaction costs.

Therefore, investors can keep more of their returns over time.

An article from Index Fund Giant Vanguard highlights the impact of fees:

“Imagine you have $100,000 invested. If the account earned 6% a year for the next 25 years and had no costs or fees, you’d end up with about $430,000.

If, on the other hand, you paid 2% a year in costs, after 25 years you’d only have about $260,000.

That’s right: The 2% you paid every year would wipe out almost 40% of your final account value. 2% doesn’t sound so small anymore, does it?”

Source: Vanguard Group
index fund cost
Source: Vanguard


Index funds offer broad exposure to various assets, sectors, and regions within a single investment vehicle. By investing in an index fund, investors can effectively diversify their portfolios, spreading risk across multiple holdings and reducing the impact of poor performance by any single asset.

Easy Access and Simplicity

Index funds are easy to understand and access. Investors don’t need to research individual stocks or bonds and can instead focus on selecting the right index fund to suit their investment goals. Investors can access index funds through a discount broker like eToro.

This makes index funds attractive for beginner investors or those who prefer a passive investing strategy.

Most index funds trade as exchange-traded funds, making them widely available through brokerages and fund providers.

I started investing in index funds because I realized I knew little about investing, and it was the best decision I’ve ever made.


Numerous studies show that index funds often outperform actively managed funds over the long term, largely due to the lower fees associated with passive management.

Index funds can deliver consistent returns by tracking the market without the risks of poor management decisions or underperformance by individual securities.

Cons of Index Funds

While index funds have several advantages, investors should also be aware of their potential drawbacks. 

Let’s look below:

Limited Potential for Outperformance

Index funds are passively managed, meaning they follow the composition of the underlying index. They do not employ active management strategies, such as stock picking or market timing, which means there is limited opportunity for outperformance.

Meanwhile, actively managed funds can dynamically select individual stocks and sectors, providing an opportunity for outperformance.

Let’s look below:

Concentration risk

Market capitalization-weighted index funds can sometimes be heavily weighted toward certain sectors or companies, leading to overconcentration in specific market areas.

For example, the Financial Times highlighted that just 5 companies, the five largest companies in the S&P 500 Index (Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook, and Alphabet), made up approximately 22% of the index’s market capitalization. This concentration level can expose investors to additional risks if these large companies underperform or experience severe declines.

Let’s look below:

Lack of customization

Lack of customization is a drawback of index funds because investors have limited control over the specific holdings within the fund.

This means that investors cannot tailor the portfolio to their individual preferences, values, or financial goals.

For example:

Investors interested in aligning their investments with their values, such as environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria or socially responsible investing (SRI) principles, may find it challenging to do so with a traditional index fund.

This is because index funds are designed to track a specific market index and do not allow for customization based on ESG or SRI considerations.

Tax Management: Index funds do not offer the same level of tax management as separately managed accounts or individual stock portfolios. For example, investors cannot sell specific holdings within an index fund to realize losses for tax purposes (tax-loss harvesting). This lack of customization may result in less tax-efficient outcomes for some investors.

Let’s look below:

Limited Risk Management

Since index funds are passively managed and aim to replicate the performance of the underlying index, they do not have the flexibility to dynamically hedge their positions response to market volatility, or adjust their holdings based on an investor’s risk tolerance or investing objectives.

Meanwhile, actively managed funds can reposition their portfolios to mitigate risk during periods of heightened volatility, and an individually selected portfolio can be adjusted to meet an investor’s investing objectives and risk tolerance.

Let’s look below:

Overweighting in High-Risk Sectors

Market capitalization-weighted index funds can be disproportionately exposed to high-risk sectors during periods of market volatility. This is because they allocate more weight to companies with larger market capitalizations, which can lead to a concentration of risk when these companies are part of volatile sectors.

You are Less likely to Learn About Investing

Index funds have a set-it-and-forget approach. When I started investing in Index Funds, I bought VOO and called it a day. I didn’t learn about EPS or read-up on earnings releases. Sure, you can still do that, but you are less inclined when you have a basket of individual securities.

It sounds odd, but only when I started investing in individual stocks did I really understand what it means to become an investor.

The Bottom Line

Index funds provide a low-cost, diversified, and easily managed investment option, making them an attractive choice for long-term investors. However, their passive management may result in limited potential for outperformance and a lack of flexibility in addressing market changes.

The Research

I want to break down how I came up with the pros and cons of index funds for my recent article. Let me give you a behind-the-scenes look at my methodology.

Personal Experience

First and foremost, I’ve been dabbling in index funds for a while now. These aren’t just numbers and concepts; they’re part of my actual portfolio. Trust me, I’ve felt the rush when the market’s up and the cringe when it takes a hit.

Discussions with Peers

I’ve also had plenty of debates over coffee with my friends and colleagues who are into investing. Some swear by the “set it and forget it” ease of index funds, while others argue that individual stocks or actively managed funds offer more thrills—and maybe higher returns.

Reputable Sources

For the nitty-gritty details, I dove into credible finance journals, studies, and expert interviews. Websites like Investopedia and Morningstar were goldmines for information.

Market Analysis

Real-time market analysis from platforms like Yahoo Finance and Bloomberg provided actionable insights. I checked out the performance trends of popular index funds to see how they really hold up in different market conditions.

Social Proof

I even scoured Reddit forums and Twitter threads. Believe it or not, there’s a lot of wisdom (and cautionary tales) out there in the social media world. People are willing to share their hands-on experiences, for better or worse.


Finally, every piece of information underwent a rigorous fact-checking process. If something seemed too good to be true, I dug deeper.

By combining all these elements, I aimed to create a well-rounded view of the pros and cons of index funds. So, when you read my post, know that it’s backed by research, real-world experience, and a good dose of skepticism.

Catch you in the next post!

Adam Koprucki

Expertise: Fixed-income investing, Macroeconomics, Personal Finance, Derivatives, Options, Index Funds

Professional Experience: J.P. Morgan, Deloitte Consulting, Societe Generale, The Vanguard Group

Education: Loyola University: Bachelor of Business Administration, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Certificate in Capital Markets

Adam Koprucki is the founder of Real World Investor, an investing website dedicated to reviewing the newest and latest investing tools and providing unique market insights for beginner to intermediate investors.

Before starting Real World Investor, he spent over a decade working at some of the world's largest investment banks and investment managers, such as Citibank, J.P. Morgan, Societe Generale, Deloitte, and The Vanguard Group.

His experience includes working with complex financial products such as exotic interest rate derivatives, structured products, and structured credit.

A dedicated and enthusiastic investor, he is passionate about macroeconomics and options trading. His investing insights have been published on Investopedia, Yahoo Finance, Seeking Alpha, GoBankingRates, Nasdaq, and Bigger Pockets.

He is also a contributing author at